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Archive for the ‘Speech and Language’ Category

Atas permintaan beberapa orang member susuibu.com, kat sini aku taip note pysio yang aku dapat dulu.. (thanx to my physiotherapist.. Ira)


Latihan untuk menggalakkan anak duduk

Cara Pertama

  • Letakkan kanak-kanak dalam posisi duduk, sendalkan jika perlu. jia boleh letakkan dia atas permukaan yang lembut terlebih dahulu.
  • letakkan kanak-kanak di tempat duduk sudut, ikat jika perlu atau
  • letakkan kanak-kanak di tempat duduk sudut dan letakkan meja kecil di hadapannya.
  • galakkan kanak-kanak bermain dengan mainan di depannya

Cara kedua

  • Letakkan kanak-kanak dalam posisi duduk – kaki lurus
  • Duduk di belakang kanak-kanak
  • Pegang punggung kanak-kanak ke bawah dan galakkan kanak-kanak meluruskan belakang.
  • Letakkan permainan atas lantai/meja rendah dan galakkan kanak-kanak bermain

Bagi memperbaiki imbangan

  • Semasa kanak-kanak sedang duduk, tolak bahu kanak-kanak ke kanan dan kemudian ke kiri untuk latih mengimbang badan
  • Dudukkan kanak-kanak ke atas benda berguling (bola besar) Imbangkan kanak-kanak semasa bermain.

Teruskan aktiviti sehingga kanak-kanak boleh duduk.. jika tiada kemajuan, dapatkan nasihat dari physiotherapist/ occupational therapist)

Macam mana cara aku menggalakkan Farish duduk

Peristiwa ni berlaku kat Hotel di Kuching. waktu tu Farish dah 7 bulan, belum boleh duduk lagi.. So aku dudukkan dia atas tilam hotel yg empuk tu. pastu aku pegang bahu dia kiri dan kanan. bila rasa agak stable, aku cuma pegang dengan jari telunjuk di atas bahu. nampak dia makin stable sambil main, aku terus lepaskan tangan, dia senget sikit ke kiri dan bum jatuh.

Pastu aku try lagi, ulang balik step kat atas, tapi kali ni dia dah prepare kot, bila aku angkat tangan ,badan dia senget, tapi dia boleh tegakkan balik.. dan aku ulang dan ulang lagi.. Aku rasa dalam 5 percubaan kot, dia dah stable duduk.

Pastu aku ubah kat atas lantai, sama gak, dia dah boleh duduk sendiri (mean aku dudukkan)

Balik ke Semenanjung, after 2 minggu, tiba2, Farish dah pandai duduk sendiri. Dari meniarap, dia angkat bontot dia, senget2, dan dum, terduduk sendiri.. Dan aku tengok dia gigih perctice, sebab pas dia buat tu, dia buat lagi, buat lagi, siap gelak2 lagi bila dia berjaya, dan merungut kalau tumbang balik…

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ADHD

Actually ku terbaca kat blog cik Fid tentang ADHD..

So kat sini aku listkan ciri2 ADHD yang digunapakai untuk mendiagnosa ADHD..

ADHD stand for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders = Kecelaruan Kekurangan Tumpuan Hiperaktif (buruknya bila di translate)

ADHD mempunyai 14 ciri-ciri..

  1. Often fidgets or squirms in seat

  2. Has difficulty remaining seated

  3. Is easily distracted

  4. Has difficulty awaiting turn in groups

  5. Often blurts out answers to questions

  6. Has difficulty following instructions

  7. has difficulty sustaining attention to task

  8. Often shifts from one uncompleted  activities to others

  9. Has difficulty playing quietly

  10. Often talks excessively

  11. Often interrupts or intrudes on others

  12. Often does not seem to listen

  13. Often loses things necessary for tasks

  14. Often engages in physically dangerous activities without considering consequences

Kalau nak informally diagnose either anak kita (or kita sendiri ker) ada ADHD atau tak, refer checklist atas.. to confirm ADHD individu itu mestilah kena present at least 7 atau lebih ciri2 ADHD di atas.. Dan kena ikut severity jugak.. biasanya rate 0 – 3

0= not at all

1= just a little

2= pretty much

3 = very much

Kalau anak kita ada 14 ciri tu, tapi score dia cuma 1, so dia bukan ADHD.. tapi kalau dia ada 7 ciri dan score 2 @ 3, confirm ADHD..

Kalau aku, aku ada 5 ciri2 ADHD tu dan ada tu score 2… dan aku confirm bukan ADHD walaupun time kecik dulu ayah selalu kata aku ni budak pompuan yg buas (kalau utara buas ni maksud sangat lasak)

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Alternative Names

Trisomy 18

Definition

Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder associated with the presence of extra material from chromosome 18.

Causes

Trisomy 18 is a relatively common syndrome affecting approximately 1 out of 3,000 live births. It is three times more common in girls than boys. The syndrome is caused by the presence of an extra material from chromosome 18. The extra material interferes with normal development.

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

Examination of the pregnant woman may show an unusually large uterus and extra amniotic fluid. An unusually small placenta may be seen when the baby is born.

Physical examination of the infant may show unusual finger print patterns. X-rays may show a short breast bone. Chromosome studies show trisomy 18, partial trisomy, or translocation.

There are often signs of congenital heart disease, such as:

Tests may also show kidney problems, including:

Treatment

Medical management of children with Trisomy 18 is planned on a case-by-case basis and depends on the individual circumstances of the patients

Outlook (Prognosis)

Fifty percent of infants with this condition do not survive beyond the first week of life. Some children have survived to teenage years, but with serious medical and developmental problems.

Possible Complications

Complications depend on the specific defects and symptoms.

Prevention

Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is possible with an amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and chromosome studies on amniotic cells. Parents who have a child with translocational trisomy 18 and want additional children should have chromosome studies, because they are at increased risk to have another child with trisomy 18.

(Referrence from MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia)

picutre of Edward’s

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Since aku mengendalikan pesakit dengan pelbagai masalah, di sini aku ingi share antara syndrome-syndrome yang berkaitan dengan Speech and Language Disorders.. Dan juga untuk rujukan aku terutama untuk jenis2 syndrome yang jarang kita jumpa..

Aku mulai dengan

CRI DU CHAT SYNDROME

Alternative Names

Chromosome 5p deletion syndrome; 5p minus syndrome; Cat cry syndrome

Definition

Cri du chat syndrome is a group of symptoms that result from missing a piece of chromosome number 5. The syndrome’s name is based on the infant’s cry, which is high-pitched and sounds like a cat.

Causes

Cri du chat syndrome is rare. It occurs when a piece of information on chromosome 5 is missing. It is likely that multiple genes on chromosome 5 are deleted. One deleted gene, called TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) is involved in control of cell growth, and may play a role in how some of the features of this syndrome develop.

Most cases are believed occur during the development of an egg or sperm. A minority of cases result from one parent carrying a rearrangement of chromosome 5 called a translocation.

Between 1 in 20,000 – 50,000 babies are affected. This disease may account for up to 1% of individuals with severe mental retardation.

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

In addition to symptoms, the physical examination may show:

Genetic tests can show a missing part of chromosome 5. Skull x-ray may reveal an abnormal angle to the base of the skull.

Treatment

No specific treatment is available for this syndrome. The mental retardation must be addressed, and counseling is recommended for the parents.

Parents of a child with this syndrome should have genetic counseling and a karyotype test to determine if one parent has a rearrangement of chromosome 5.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outcome varies but mental retardation is usual. Half of those children affected learn sufficient verbal skills to communicate. The cat-like cry becomes less apparent over time.

Possible Complications

Complications depend on the extent of mental retardation and physical abnormalities. Complications may include:

  • Inability to care for self
  • Inability to function in society

(Rujukan dari MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia)

Picture of cri du chat syndrome

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Bagaimana Kita Boleh merangsang Komunikasi Kanak-Kanak

(Ni aku copy paste daripada presentation aku.)

  1. Respon kepada cubaan komunikasi bayi dengan melihat kepadanya, bercakap, meniru sebutan, ketawa & ekpresi muka bayi.
  2. Ajar bayi untuk meniru aksi – “umm cak”, “wa wa bulan”, “cok cok ping”, “cak cekok” dll
  3. Bercakaplah semasa melakukan aktiviti – mandi, makan, berpakaian, “Kita sabun badan”, “hmmm…sedapnya nestum.buka mulut…. ammm”
  4. Bercakap tentang perkara yang akan dilakukan, ke mana kita pergi, siapa dan apa kita jumpa, dll
  5. Mengira- menggunakan jari, langkah kaki
  6. Ajar bunyi-bunyi persekitaran -binatang, kenderaan dsb
  7. Guna isyarat untuk meyampaikan makna – lambai tangan, salam
  8. Huraikan perkataan tunggal yang disebut. “baju- baju adik, papa – papa tidur”
  9. MEMBACA bersama
  10. MAIN bersama
  11. Terima kelemahan anak dan hargai kelebihannya

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*Eye contact is the earliest means of communication. Eye contact is used to request, greet or to get attention.

To establish eye contact, sit face to face with your child. Try to place your child at your eye level.

e.g: sit your child on your lap

sit your child on the chair or table

*Draw your child’s attention by holding object near to your face. Give the verbal cue (e.g: call his/her name)

* Tap your child’s nose and then your nose. After the child look at yo, rewards him by saying “good/pandai”

* Put your child’s hand on your face to gain attention before giving him/her a direction to follow.

* As your child increases eye contact, give him a verbal cue “look” and wait for the respond.

* Play funny face game. You can use funny mask, cover and uncover your face.

* Play peek-a-boo (umm cak) game with your child…

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Pra-pertuturan adalah kemahiran sebelum anak anda pandai bertutur. Tengok anak anda, adakah dia sudah mencapai tahap kemahiran sebanding dengan umurnya???

EYE CONTACT

1 bulan – anak anda sudah boleh memberikan pandangan mata pada anda

ATTENTION (TUMPUAN)

5 bulan – respond kepada panggilan

– melihat kepada objek yang ditunjuk

6 bulan – melihat objek bergerak

– memberi perhatian bersama (share attention) semasa bermain

IMITATION (PENIRUAN)

5 bulan – meniru bunyi tidak bermakna

9 bulan – meniru pergerakan motor kasar (contoh pergerakan tangan)

– meniru pergerakan mulut

10 bulan- meniru sebutan

18bulan – meniru pergerakan motor halus (pergerakan menggunakan jari cth: menulis, mengutip dengan 2 jari)

TURN TAKING (MENGAMBIL GILIRAN)

12bulan- menunggu/mengambil giliran semasa bermain

SYMBOLIC PLAY (PERMAINAN SIMBOLIK)

12 bulan – bermain dengan cara yang sesuai (cth: tolak kereta vs ketuk kereta) (baling bola vs masuk bola ke dalam

mulut)

14bulan – boleh menggunakan objek mengikut fungsi (cawan-minum, sikat- sikat rambut)

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